Chania

Wheat Production

Seed requirement:
  • Seed drill 110 to 125kg/ ha
  • Broadcasting/ Vicon 125 to 135kg/ha
  • In the Low Veld 150 to 160kg/ ha due to poor tillering caused by axcess heat which shortens the irrigation cycle hence less period of water withdrawal
  • This should give us a standard range of plant population of 250 to 300 000 plants/ ha
  • Fertiliser recommendations:

    We highly recommend that soils be taken for analysis to determine soil pH and the type of basal, top dressing and trace fertilisers to apply in soil in order to address the issue of soil nutritional balances for excellent performance. Wheat yield can range between 5 and 11 t/ha under good management practices.

    However, below are general recommendations for basal and top-dressing fertilisers which might not give you the maximum potential out put of your crop in the ecological region you are farming.

  • Ideal soil pH 5,1 and 7,0
  • Fertiliser Soil Type Kg/Hectare Comments
    D or D Xtra 7:14:7 9s

    Sandy soils

    Heavy soils

    450-550

    300-500

    Total basal fertiliser must be applied at planting or prior to planting
    Double D 14:28:14

    Sandy soils

    Heavy soils

    250-300

    150-250

    Total basal fertiliser must be applied at planting or prior to planting
    A/N 34.5% or Super cereal blend(11%)

    Sandy soils

    Heavy soils

    450-500

    300-500

    Top dressing is done on day 22 after the stress period.
    In sandy soils apply 3 quarters on day 22 then the other quarter three weeks later, total recommended in heavy soils at day 22.

    Urea 46%

    Sandy soils

    Heavy soils

    250-350

    225-300

    Apply in wet soil or follow with irrigation or cultivate

    Lime Ammonium Nitrate(LAN)

    Sandy soils

    Heavy soils

    450-600

    300-500


    Weeds Herbicide Application Comments
    All weeds (pre-planting)

    Roundup (glyphosate-al)

    1 to 3l/ha

    Applied at pre-planting for all weeds and zero tillage, the rate is determined by the stage of the weeds
    Grass weeds

    Pumer super

    300 to 500ml/ha

    Post emergency, controls annual and perennial grasses
    Grass weeds

    Ally + Banvel mix

    5g + 100ml + 0,1% Sanawett/ ha

    Post emergency, controls annual and perennial grasses
    Grass weeds

    Banvel + MCPA mix

    250ml + 750ml/ ha

    Post emergency, controls annual and perennial grasses
    Broadleaf weeds

    Bromoxynil 22.5 EC

    90-120ml/15l knapsack sprayer

    Applied at 3 to 5 leaf stage of crop. Suitable for seed crops. Apply higher rates for aerial spray
    Broadleaf weeds

    Dicamba/ Banvel

    15-20ml/15l knapsack sprayer

    Applied 3 to 5 leaf stage of crop. Can be used for broad leaf weeds
    Broadleaf weeds

    MCPA

    190ml/15l knapsack sprayer

    Applied at 3 to 5 leaf stage of crop
    Use combinations for better weed specrum cover e.g. Buctril DS at 0.5l & MCPA at 2.0l

    Pests Pestcide Application Comments
    Aphids

    Dimethoate 40EC

    30ml/ 15l knapsack sprayer

    Recommended that one application of 500ml/ ha applied with herbicides to control early aphid attack.
    Also controls leaf hoppers
    Aphids

    Thunder

    15ml/ 15l knapsack sprayer

    Full cover spray in 300ml of water/ ha.
    Apply as soon as early infestation is noticed from mid tiller to booting stage
    Armyworm

    Carbaryl 85% WP

    625g/ha

    Spray as soon as the worm is identified, the larva is the most devastating stage by eating the leaves
    Leaf and ear caterpillar

    Carbaryl 85% WP

    625g/ha

    Early control before serious damage feed by eating or stripping the leaves
    Leaf and ear caterpillar

    Malathion 50% EC

    600 to 1200ml/ ha

    Early control before serious damage feed by eating or stripping the leaves
    Quelea birds

    Bird scaring

    Use 4 people/ ha

    Report to AGRITEX and National Parks and Wildlife management authority

    Diseases Chemical Application Comments
    Loose smut & damping off

    Baytan 150FS

    150ml/ 100kg seed

    Seed dressing, 150ml/ 100kg of seed. Sprinkle 25g over 50kg of seed, mix 50g/ 90kg of seed. Rogue and destroy infected plants, plant certified seed, use tolerant varieties, practice rotation
    Powdery mildew & Rust

    Tilt/ Propiconazole 250EC other fungicides

    30ml/ 15l knapsack sprayer

    Apply when first signs of disease are visible, apply for rust before seed fill and repeat 3 to 4 weeks later if disease continues
    Stimulant

    Kelpak

    15ml/15l knapsack sprayer

    Apply when first signs of disease are visible, apply for rust before seed fill and repeat 3 to 4 weeks later if disease continues
    Wheat leaf rust

    Shavit

    As per recommendations

    Plant tolerant varieties, follow recommended planting dates, distraction of volunteer wheat plants
    Maize Streak Virus

    Cruiser or Gaucho

    Seed dress as per recommendations

    Plant tolerant varieties, spray for the hopper around the field and keep surroundings clean from green grass (host)

    Proposed planting dates in different ecological regions
    Area Ideal planting date Reason
    High veld

    Up to 25 May

    To avoid the coinciding of flowering with frost, frost during ear emergency and flowering may cause floral sterility hence reducing grain set. Severe frost after heading can destroy the stem below the ear hence stopping further development of the grain.
    Severe frost after grain setting may cause moisture in the grain to freeze damaging grain, affecting test density.

    Middle veld

    7 to 15 May

    Wheat grows well under temperate conditions

    Low veld

    1 to 10 May

    To avoid sharp rising temperatures during grain filling stage, high temperatures after flowering reduce period grain filling and hence affecting yield and quality


    NB:
  • Wheat requires between 400 and 600mm of water to physiological maturity
  • Wheat germinates well in field irrigated to field capacity just before planting
  • Roll over the seed with smooth roller if broadcast planting method was used to improve soil to seed contact
  • Apply 22mm of irrigation soon after planting
  • Withdraw water and stop all crop management operations for 21 days
  • Spray post emergency herbicide as well as top dressing and commence irrigation cycle
  • Irrigation, the most critical stages which are sensitive to moisture are: during root development (hence field capacity at planting), heading, booting, blister stage, milk dough stage and grain filling
  • Harvesting, scare quelea birds before harvest to reduce field losses, monitor the moisture content and harvest the crop before it is over dried (12,5%), set the combine harvest blades well to reduce harvesting losses