Chania

Agriseeds Sorghum Hwedza

Characteristics
  • Large grain
  • Early maturity (90-110 days)
  • Good standability
  • Minimun bird damage due to loose head
  • Good tolerance to Leaf Blight and Rust
  • High yielding potential of +4mt/Ha
  • Climatic Requirements
  • Rainfall between 300 and 900 mm
  • Soil Requirements
  • Higher yields are obtained on sandy loamy and heavy textured soils.
  • Deep and well drained soils
  • The ideal soil pH is 5-6.5
  • Planting
  • Spacing: 75 x 5 cm, 5 – 7 kg seed/ha for small seed and up to 10 kg for large seed.
  • Planting Time: From end of November through to end of December in Zimbabwe.
  • It is not advisable to continuously plant a sorghum crop due to pest build-up
  • Sorghum Field Management

    Weed Management
  • Sorghum is very sensitive to weed competition especially during the early stages of growth and establishment.
  • Normally 2-3 hoe-weeding regimes are done even though the use of preemergence herbicides like artrazine can be recommended in soils with greater than 25% clay content.
  • Thinning
  • Thinning should be done to establish an in- row spacing of 15-20 cm and this should be done before tilling begins and is normally done 4 weeks after emergence.
  • At this stage it is also recommended to fill in for the seeds that that did not germinate or seedlings that were affected by diseases.
  • Disease and Pests Management
    Pest Symptoms Control
    Shoot fly Feeding larvae cause drying up of central leaf and dead heart symptoms in 1-4 weeks seedlings Timely planting, use of high seed rates Chemical control using thionex, carbaryl etc).
    Aphids
  • Found on the under side of leaves and funnel.
  • Secret honeydew that leads to sooty molds growth.
  • Chemically using malathion, dimethoate (rogor), diazinon
    Spider mites Suck sap from leaves to cause stunting. Mainly prevalent during hot dry spells Spaying with acaricides
    Stalk borer Penetrate stem through funnel at any stage of growth Use chemicals like endosulfan, carbaryl, thionex, carbofuran
    Head bugs Adults suck sup from the developing grain Control chemically using dimethoate
    Armoured crickets These feed on the sorghum head thereby reducing grain yield Control biologically by scouting and hand picking but chemical control may be used.
    Birds Remove sown seeds or seed from panicle. Less damage when crop mature at same time or on extensive sorghum fields Scaring is the answer to the problem
    Disease Symptoms Control
    Stalk rots Irregular molted pattern within internodes especially on peduncle. Control (rotations, clean cultivation, destroy residues
    Downey mildew Infected seedlings are chlorotic, stunted and may die pre maturely. Treat seed metaloxyl, deep ploughing, use resistant varieties
    Grain moulds Molds develop on grain on the panicle especially when crop matures during periods of high rainfall and humidity Control by adjusting sowing dates.
    Ergot Infection is from panicle emergence through fertilization may cause complete crop loss Use of resistant varieties, proper rotations, destroy residues
    Smut Ear head become swollen and turn gray Spray with fungicides, use of resistant varieties, removing smutted heads