Chania

Maize Production

Requirements for 1ha(2.47 acres) of Commercial and Green Mealie Maize crop
Seed requirement for commercial grain:
  • 25 to 30kg/ha, depends on ecological region
  • Plant stand should not exceed 55 000 plants/ha
  • Seed requirement for green mealies:
  • 20 to 25kg/ha
  • Using the spacing of 90x35cm or 90x40cm to give a plant population of 31600 and 27800 respectively, lower plant populations enhances the cob size.
  • Fertiliser recommendations:
  • We highly recommend that soils be taken for analysis to determine soil pH and the type of basal, top dressing and trace fertilisers to apply in order to address the issue of soil nutritional balances for productivity. Maize yield can range between 3 and 16 t/ha even higher under good management practices (GAP). Lower yield is mainly archived in marginal areas, in marginal areas we encourage farmers to practise drought mitigation measures.

  • However, below are general recommendations for inputs including basal and top-dressing fertilisers which might not give you the maximum potential output of your crop in the ecological region you are farming.

  • NB:
  • Ideal soil pH 5,5 and 6,5 with 6,0 being good
  • - Green mealies require less basal fertiliser than that of commercial maize an average of 300kg/ha of compound D and the same amount for AN
  • Pests and diseases Control

  • Find table below for major pests and diseases that affect maize
  • Fertiliser Soil Type Kg/Ha Comments
    D 7:14:7

    Sandy soils

    Heavy soils

    400-500

    350-450

    Total basal fertiliser must be applied at planting or prior to planting
    Double D 14:28:14

    Sandy soils

    Heavy soils

    250-275

    175-225

    Total basal fertiliser must be applied at planting or prior to planting
    A/N 34.5%

    Sandy soils

    Heavy soils

    400-550

    350-450

    Split application, two weeks interval of the total quantity

    Once-off top dressing is done at 3 to 4 weeks in heavy soils

    Urea 46%

    Sandy soils

    Heavy soils

    250-350

    225-275

    Apply in wet soil or follow with irrigation or cultivate

    Lime Ammonium Nitrate(LAN) or
    Calcium Ammonium Nitrate(CAN)

    Sandy soils

    Heavy soils

    250-350

    225-275


    Weeds Herbicide Application Comments
    Grasses and
    Broadleaf

    Metolachlor 960 EC/ Dual Magnum

    1,3 to 1,9l/ha

    Pre-Emergency for grasses, YNS and Broadleaf weeds
    Grasses and
    Broadleaf

    Atranex/Atrazine

    3,5 to 5,5l/ha

    Pre or early post emergency for broad leaf
    Grasses and
    Broadleaf

    Acetochlor 90EC

    0,5 to 1,0l/ha

    Pre-Emergency for annual grasses and some broadleaf weeds
    Grasses and
    Broadleaf

    Basagran/Benetazone

    3,0 to 5,0l/ha

    Post-Emergency for broadleaf weeds only
    Grasses and
    Broadleaf

    Bateleur Gold 650EC

    0,7 to 1,7l/ha

    Pre-Emergency for annual grasses and broadleaf weeds
    Grasses and
    Broadleaf

    Buctril 225/Bromoxynil 225SC

    1,5 to 2,0l /ha

    Post-Emergency for broadleaf weeds only
    Grasses and
    Broadleaf

    Halosulfuron

    50g/ha

    Post-Emergency for grasses, broadleaf weeds and nutsedge
    Grasses and
    Broadleaf

    Stellar Star

    0,7 to 1,0l/ha

    Post-Emergency for annual grasses and broadleaf weeds
    Conservation tillage

    Roundup/Glyphosate

    0,5 to 4,0l/ha

    Apply to weeds before or just after planting

    Pests Pesticide Application Comments
    Fall Army Worm

    Acephate

    500g/ha

    Fall Army Worm is best prevented than to control, this is archived by spraying our
    crop at an early stage when the worm is still at insta one (when its its still green and very tender) then ecoterex is placed on the growing funnel at 3 to 4 weeks
    Fall Army Worm

    Lambda

    400ml/ha

    Fall Army Worm

    Emamectin Benzoate

    250g/ha

    Fall Army Worm

    Ecoterex

    4kg/ha

    Army Worm

    Carbaryl 85% WP

    37g/15l water

    Spray as high-volume as soon as the worm is identified, the larva is the most devastating stage by eating the leaves mainly the growing point
    Hoppers

    Dimethoate 40EC

    30ml/15l of water

    Apply as a high-volume spray, repeat every 7 to 10 days
    Hoppers

    Curaterr 10g

    1g/ plant station

    Apply 1g per planting station in the planting hole at planting or 200g/ 100m row applied with seed at planting
    Hoppers

    Cruiser

    292ml/100kg seed

    Dress the seed at planting
    Hoppers

    Gaucho

    As per recommendation for MSV

    Dress the seed at planting
    Hoppers

    Hygiene

    General cleanliness of your fields and surroundings also helps in controlling the hopper
    Stored Grain

    Shumba

    25g/50kg shelled grain

    Mix thoroughly in layers as one is mixing stock feed or cement into the grain then store, check on the number of days the pesticide will remain active apply again.
    Keep the grain in a dry, cool, well ventilated storage place with a roof and under lock and key.
    Store grain raised from the floor and at least 60cm away from the wall.
    Stored Grain

    Actellic Super (Dust)

    25g/ 50kg shelled grain

    Mix thoroughly in layers as one is mixing stock feed or cement into the grain then store, check on the number of days the pesticide will remain active apply again.
    Keep the grain in a dry, cool, well ventilated storage place with a roof and under lock and key.
    Store grain raised from the floor and at least 60cm away from the wall.
    Stored Grain

    Chamboko or Chikwapuro

    Follow application rates

    Mix thoroughly in layers as one is mixing stock feed or cement into the grain then store, check on the number of days the pesticide will remain active apply again.
    Keep the grain in a dry, cool, well ventilated storage place with a roof and under lock and key.
    Store grain raised from the floor and at least 60cm away from the wall.
    Diseases Chemical Application Comments
    Grey Leaf Spot(GLS)

    Propiconazole 25EC

    45ml/15l of water

    Spray when disease is spotted on 3rd leaf below the cob, leaves above the cob should be kept disease free
    Grey Leaf Spot(GLS)

    Bavistin WP/Benomyl 50WP

    45ml/15l of water

    As above
    Grey Leaf Spot(GLS)

    Propiconazole 25EC

    45ml/15l of water

    Spray when disease is spotted on 3rd leaf below the cob, leaves above the cob should be kept disease free
    Grey Leaf Spot(GLS)

    Tolerant variety/ fungicide dressing

    Select GLS tolerant variety or dress the seed at plant with cruiser of gaucho
    Maize Streak Virus(MSV)

    Cruiser or Gaucho

    Seed dress as per recommendations

    Plant tolerant varieties, spray for the hopper around the field and keep surroundings clean from green grass (host)

    Diseases Chemical Application Comments
    Grey Leaf Spot(GLS)

    Propiconazole 25EC

    45ml/15l of water

    Spray when disease is spotted on 3rd leaf below the cob, leaves above the cob should be kept disease free
    Grey Leaf Spot(GLS)

    Bavistin WP/Benomyl 50WP

    45ml/15l of water

    As above
    Grey Leaf Spot(GLS)

    Propiconazole 25EC

    45ml/15l of water

    Spray when disease is spotted on 3rd leaf below the cob, leaves above the cob should be kept disease free
    Grey Leaf Spot(GLS)

    Tolerant variety/ fungicide dressing

    Select GLS tolerant variety or dress the seed at plant with cruiser of gaucho
    Maize Streak Virus(MSV)

    Cruiser or Gaucho

    Seed dress as per recommendations

    Plant tolerant varieties, spray for the hopper around the field and keep surroundings clean from green grass (host)

    Proposed planting population in different ecological regions
    Area Ideal plant population Seed rate Comments
    High veld

    Up to 55000 plants/ha

    25-30kg/ha of standard seed size

    To archive the maximum potential yield, it is recommended that you plant 46 to 55 000 plants per hectare (pp), too low population will compromise on the yield whilst too high plant population will lead to blinds hence compromising on the final yield.
    Middle veld

    Between 36000 and 46000 plants/ha

    Average 25kg/ha

    This plant population helps in making sure the crop is growing under less competition environment
    Low veld

    26000 to 36000 plants/ha

    Average 25kg/ha

    In this environment it is recommended that farmers grow drought tolerant crops, but should one wish to grow maize, drought tolerant varieties are recommended and less plant population is ideal to give the crop enough space for nutrients, moisture, light, aeration and free root development

    NB:
  • If applying curaterr for leaf hoppers this will also control stalkborer
  • Approximately 16X15l knapsacks will cover 1ha and apply 250l
  • Use Bladbuff water/ buffer or WINBooster adjuvant where spray water is alkaline and or is hard (high Calcium and Magnesium salts)
  • Make sure the crop is always kept weed free
  • READ LABELS CAREFULLY BEFORE USING PRODUCTS OR ASK FOR ASSISTANCE FROM YOUR LOCAL AGRITEX OFFICER